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Non-cognitive Aspects of Human Intellect

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Emotional Intelligence

Summary of Emotional Intelligence - Goleman. Abstract

Robert Thorndike (1937)

David Wechsler (1940)

Howard Gardner (1983)

Salovey & Mayer (1990)

Daniel Goleman (1995)

A bit of Emotional Intelligence history


When psychologists began to write and think about intelligence, they initially focused on cognitive aspects, such as memory and problem-solving. However, there have been researchers who recognized early on that the non-cognitive aspects were also important:

Granted that cognitive ability seems to play a rather limited role in accounting for why some people are more successful than others, in doing the research for his first book, Daniel Goleman becoming aware of Salovey and Mayers work in the early 1990s, trained as a psychologist at Harvard where he worked with David McClelland, wrote the popular bestseller "Emotional Intelligence" (1995), in which he offered the first ' proof'  that emotional and social factors are important.


The Five (Four) Domains of Emotional Intelligence


Goleman in 1995 agrees with Salovey's Five Main Domains of Emotional Intelligence (p. 43)

  1. Knowing one's emotions (self-awareness - recognizing a feeling as it happens)

  2. Managing emotions (the ability of handling feelings so they are appropriate)

  3. Motivating oneself (marshalling emotions in the service of a goal)

  4. Recognizing emotions in others (empathy, social awareness)

  5. Handling relationships (skill in managing emotions in others)

More recently, Goleman favors only Four Domains of Emotional Intelligence (with 19 categories, as described in his 2002-book "Primal Leadership")(2 extra categories added by the Hay Group):

  1. Self-awareness (Emotional Self-Awareness, Accurate Self-Assessment and Self Confidence)

  2. Self-management (Emotional Self-Control, Transparency (Trustworthiness), Adaptability, Achievement Orientation, Initiative, Optimism, Conscientiousness)

  3. Social awareness (Empathy, Organizational Awareness, Service Orientation)

  4. Relationship management (Inspirational Leadership, Influence, Developing Others, Change Catalyst, Conflict Management, Building Bonds, Teamwork and Collaboration, Communication)

An important thing to understand is that -at least according to Goleman - these EI competencies are not innate talents, but learned abilities.


IQ or EI?


According to some scientists, IQ by itself is NOT a very good predictor of job performance. Hunter and Hunter (1984) estimated that at best IQ accounts for about 25 percent of the variance. Sternberg (1996) has pointed out that studies vary and that 10 percent may be a more realistic estimate. In some studies, IQ accounts for as little as 4 percent of the variance. In a recent meta-analysis examining the correlation and predictive validity of EI when compared to IQ or general mental ability, Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004) found IQ to be a better predictor of work and academic performance than EI. However, when it comes to the question of whether a person will become a “star performer” (in the top ten percent, however such performance is appropriately assessed) within that role, or be an outstanding leader, IQ may be a less powerful predictor than emotional intelligence (Goleman 1998, 2001, 2002).


IQ and EI: pure types


According to Goleman, IQ and EI are not opposing competencies, but rather separate ones. People with a high IQ but low EI (or the opposite) are, despite the stereotypes, relatively rare. There is a correlation between IQ and some aspects of EI. The stereotypes (pure types) are:

How can we assess and measure Emotional Intelligence?


Instruments used for measuring Emotional Intelligence include:

Book: Daniel Goleman - Emotional Intelligence

👀TIP: On this website you can find much more about Emotional Intelligence!

Compare with Emotional Intelligence: Cultural Intelligence  |  Leadership Styles  |  Framing  |  ERG Theory  |  Path-Goal Theory  |  4 Dimensions of Relational Work  |  Competing Values Framework  |  Hierarchy of Needs  |  Six Change Approaches  |  Seven Habits  |  PAEI

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