Abraham Maslow biography - Hierarchy of Needs
Hierarchy of Needs framework
Abraham Maslow biography
Maslow: biography / resume / curriculum vitae
was born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. He was the first of seven
children born to his parents, who themselves were uneducated Jewish
immigrants from Russia. His parents, hoping for the best for their
children in the new world, pushed him hard for academic success. Not
surprisingly, he became very lonely as a boy, and found his refuge in
The Hierarchy of Needs model of Abraham Maslow
Each human being is motivated by needs. Our most basic needs are inborn, having evolved over tens of thousands of years. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs helps to explain how these needs motivate us all.
Hierarchy of Needs - Physiological needs
These are the very basic needs such as air, water, food, sleep, sex, etc. When these are not satisfied we may feel sickness, irritation, pain, discomfort, etc. These feelings motivate us to alleviate them as soon as possible to establish homeostasis. Once they are alleviated, we may think about other things.
These have to do with establishing stability and consistency in a chaotic world. These needs are mostly psychological in nature. We need the security of a home and family. However, if a family is dysfunction, i.e., an abusive husband, the wife cannot move to the next level because she is constantly concerned for her safety. Love and belongingness have to wait until she is no longer cringing in fear. Many in our society cry out for law and order because they do not feel safe enough to go for a walk in their neighborhood.
Hierarchy of Needs - Love and belongingness needs
These are next on the ladder. Humans have a desire to belong to groups: clubs, work groups, religious groups, family, gangs, etc. We need to feel loved (non-sexual) by others, to be accepted by others. Performers appreciate applause. We need to be needed.
Hierarchy of Needs - Self-Esteem needs
There are two types of esteem needs. First is self-esteem which results from competence or mastery of a task. Second, there's the attention and recognition that comes from others. This is similar to the belongingness level, however, wanting admiration has to do with the need for power.
Hierarchy of Needs - The need for self-actualization
is "the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything
that one is capable of becoming." People who have everything can maximize
their potential. They can seek knowledge, peace, esthetic experiences,
self-fulfillment, oneness with God, etc.
of Needs model was developed between 1943-1954, and first widely published
in Motivation and Personality in 1954. At this time the Hierarchy of Needs
model comprised five needs. Maslow's most popular book is Toward a
Psychology of Being (1968), in which more layers were added. The original 5
layer-version still remains for most people the definitive Hierarchy of
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