Douglas McGregor, an American
social psychologist, proposed his famous Theory X and Y models
in his book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise' (1960).
||Humans inherently dislike working and will try to avoid it
if they can.
||People view work as being as natural as play and rest. Humans expend the same amount of physical and mental effort
in their work as in their private lives.
||Because people dislike work they have to be coerced or controlled by
management and threatened so they work hard enough.
||Provided people are motivated, they will be self-directing
to the aims of the organization. Control and punishment are not
the only mechanisms to make people work.
||Average employees want to be directed.
||Job satisfaction is key to engaging employees and ensuring
||People don't like responsibility.
||People learn to accept and seek responsibility. Average humans, under the proper conditions, will not only
accept but even naturally seek responsibility.
||Average humans are clear and unambiguous and need security
||People are imaginative and creative. Their ingenuity
should be used to solve problems at work.
||Shop Floor, Mass Manufacturing - Production Workers
||Professional Services, Knowledge Workers - Managers and
||Large scale efficient operations
||Management of Professionals, Participative Complex Problem Solving
||Authoritarian, Hard Management
||Participative, Soft Management
McGregor sees Theory Y as the
preferable model and management method, however he felt it was
difficult to use in large-scale operations.
In 1981, William Ouchi came up
with a variant that combined American and Japanese management practices
together to form Theory Z, having the following
characteristics: long-term employment - collective decision
making - individual responsibility - slow evaluation & promotion -
implicit, informal control with explicit, formalized measures -
moderately specialized career paths - and a holistic concern for the
employee, including family.
Compare with Theory X Theory Y:
Bases of Social Power
Hierarchy of Needs |
Expectancy Theory |
| ERG Theory |
Herzberg Two Factor
Theory | Change
Seven Habits |
Eight Attributes of Management Excellence |
Principles of Reinvention |
Fourteen Points of
More management models