model is a relatively straightforward tool that can be used for
identifying roles and responsibilities during an organizational change
process. After all, transformation processes do not process themselves;
people have to "do" something to make the processes happen. Therefore it
is useful to describe what should be done by whom to make a
transformation process happen.
In stead of the term RACI, sometimes
also the terms RASCI or RASIC are used.
RASCI is an abbreviation for:
R = Responsible
- owns the problem / project
A = to whom "R" is Accountable - who
must sign off (Approve) on work before it is effective
( S = can be Supportive ) - can provide
resources or can play a supporting role in implementation
C = to be Consulted - has information
and/or capability necessary to complete the work
I = to be Informed - must be notified
of results, but need not be consulted
The technique is typically
supported by a RACI chart (see figure) which helps to clearly
discuss, agree and communicate the roles and
Typical steps in a RACI process:
Identify all of the
processes / activities involved and list them down the left hand
side of the chart.
Identify all of the
roles and list them along the top of the chart.
Complete the cells of
the chart: identify who has the R, A, S, C, I for each process.
should preferably have one and only one “R” as a general
principle. A gap occurs when a process exists with no “R” (no role
is responsible), an overlap occurs when multiple roles exist that
have an “R” for a given process.
- Every process in a role responsibility map should contain one and
only one “R” to indicate a unique process owner. In the case of
multiple “R”s, there is a need to “zoom in” and further detail the
sub processes associated with “obtain resource commitment” to
separate the individual responsibilities.
Resolve Gaps -
The simpler case to address is the resolution of a gap. Where no
role is identified that is “responsible” for a process, the
individual with the authority for role definition must determine
which existing role is responsible or new role that is required,
update the RASCI map and clarify with the individual(s) that assume
Compare with the RACI model:
Force Field Analysis
Management Iceberg |
Change Model Beckhard |
Changing Organization Cultures
of Change |
Root Cause Analysis |
More change management tools