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Extended Marketing Mix

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7Ps of Marketing


Summary of the Extended Marketing Mix by Booms and Bitner. Abstract

Bernard H. Booms and Mary J. Bitner

The 7 Ps or Extended Marketing Mix of Booms and Bitner is a marketing strategy tool that expands the number of controllable variables from the four in the original Marketing Mix Model to seven. The traditional Marketing Mix model was primarily directed and useful for tangible products. The 7 Ps model is more useful for services industries and arguably also for knowledge-intensive environments.


Booms and Bitner's expanded the marketing mix by adding the following 3 additional P's:


5. People: All people directly or indirectly involved in the consumption of a service are an important part of the extended marketing mix. Knowledge Workers, Employees, Management and other Consumers often add significant value to the total product or service offering.
6. Process: Procedure, mechanisms and flow of activities by which services are consumed (customer management processes) are an essential element of the marketing strategy.
7. Physical Evidence: The ability and environment in which the service is delivered, both tangible goods that help to communicate and perform the service and intangible experience of existing customers and the ability of the business to relay that customer satisfaction to potential customers.
 

The first two additional Ps are explicit (People, Process) and the third one (Physical Evidence) is an implicit factor.


Booms and Bitner also suggest that Place in a service-oriented company includes the accessibility of the service, and that Promotion in a service-oriented company includes the input of front-line service personnel.


Book: Nirmalya Kumar - Marketing As Strategy: Understanding the CEO's Agenda for Driving Growth and Innovation -

Book: David A. Aaker - Strategic Marketing Management -


Compare with the 7Ps of Marketing: Marketing Mix (4-Ps)  |  Ansoff  |  Porter  |  BCG Matrix  |  Positioning

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