The 7-Ps or Extended Marketing Mix of
is a Marketing Strategy tool that expands the number of controllable
variables from the four in the original Marketing Mix Model to seven.
The traditional Marketing Mix model
was primarily directed and useful for tangible products. The 7-Ps model
is more useful for services industries and arguably also for
expanded the marketing mix by
following 3 additional P's:
5. People: All people directly or indirectly involved in the
consumption of a service are an important part of the extended marketing
mix. Knowledge Workers, Employees, Management and other Consumers often
add significant value to the total product or service offering.
6. Process: Procedure, mechanisms and flow of activities by which
services are consumed (customer management processes) are an essential
element of the marketing strategy.
7. Physical Evidence: The ability and environment in which the
service is delivered, both tangible goods that help to communicate and
perform the service and intangible experience of existing customers and
the ability of the business to relay that customer satisfaction to
The first two additional Ps are
explicit (People, Process) and the third one (Physical Evidence) is an
Booms and Bitner also suggest that
Place in a service-oriented company includes the accessibility of
the service, and that Promotion in a service-oriented company
includes the input of front-line service personnel.
Book: Nirmalya Kumar - Marketing As Strategy:
Understanding the CEO's Agenda for Driving Growth and Innovation -
Book: David A. Aaker - Strategic Marketing Management -
Compare with the Extended Marketing Mix
(7-Ps): Marketing Mix (4-Ps)
Ansoff | Porter
BCG Matrix |
More management models